The most important technological devices of a PV-system are the modules with which the light is cought and converted into electricity. There are different types of modules which are used according to different criteria.
Monocrystalline modules were originally developed for aerospace engineering. Their production is very expensive, the efficiency factor, however, is very high. They are most effective with direct solar radiation. Monocrystalline modules are produced from ultrapure silicium. During production monocrystalline rods are extracted from a mass of silicium smelter and sawn into thin slices. These are ultimately lagged with eachother and form solar modules. Usually monocrystalline modules last for about thirty years. A module weighs - –epending on its size – between eight and 16 kilos. Compared to polycrystalline modules monocrystalline modules show a weaker environmental-balance. The production is very time- and energy-consuming, the energetic amortisation (the time until solar revenues exceed the energy-consumption during the production process) is reached a lot later.
The silicium in polycrystalline modules is not as pure as that used in monocrystalline modules. The silicium is poured into blocks and cooled down. When these have stiffened out, they are cut into slices. A slice constitutes a cell. The cells show the structure of crystals in different sizes. These structures break the light and consequently have a lower level of efficiency. The production, however, is more environment friendly and cheaper compared to that of monocrystalline cells. Polycrystalline modules are the most frequently installed PV-modules.
Thin Film Modules
Thin film modules are thin and light, as the semiconductor material, e.g. silicium, is vaporized onto carrier Material (e.g. glas). This coat is only about one micrometer. The semiconductor material is covered with another coat and interconnected directly. The production is relatively cheap, as only a small amount of semiconducting material is needed. Because of the low thickness the modules are very flexible and already integrated into everyday objects such as calculators. With 4 – 10 % of efficiency, thin film modules reach a lower level of efficiency than the mono- or polycrystalline modules. They do not react as sensitively to high heats, diffuse lighting conditions or shadowing.
Solar inverters are the heart of a PV – system. The solar collectors, i.e. the PV modules produce direct current, which cannot be used in most households, because most technical equipment works with alternating current. The inverter transforms direct current into alternating current and makes electric energy consumable. The optimal choice of the inverter is important for the optimal level of efficiency. The calculation is conducted according to the performance that the modules generate. With an integrated MPP-tracker which identifies the highest point of power, the inverter can be adjusted as to allow for a maximum energy yield. This means that the system adapts constantly to the input voltage which changes according to the varying radiation patterns.
Façade- / Wall- Systems
Photovoltaic modules can also be mounted onto walls of houses. This makes sense in such cases in which roof-systems are not appropriate. It is possible to mount the system on tracks (cold façade) which offers enogh airing of the modules from behind. With the integrated wall-system (insulated façade) the modules are used for thermal insulation at the same time.
Note in general with wall-systems that the profit could be lower, because the modules do not have the optimal angle of inclination to the sun. Temporary shading or additional irradiation due to reflection of other buildings can also occur.
Technology and Components
The semi-conducting material, such as silicium is the heart of the solar cell. Other materials which contribute to the optimization of absorption processes and the protection of the module during transport and installation are also part of the product. When several solar cells are interconnected, we talk of a module. Solar modules react to rays of sunshine and absorb the light. The so called photovoltaic-effect in the space-charge region of the solar cell causes electric tension. This tension is absorbed into different layers within the solar cell, the electric charge which causes tension is filtered and inserted into the wires which lead to the ultimate consumer. Silicium is the semi-conducting material which is mostly used for the production of solar cells. It can be worked environmentally friendly and is the main material of the earth crust which means it exists in adequate amounts.
We recommend you to install some communication software, which is directly linked to your internet in order to monitor your system. This way you can control the important data of your system directly from your account. Take part at our training courses and learn what you need to know in order to check your system. If you do not want to worry about the monitoring of your system, we gladly help you woith our support service VOLTward. Analysing the data which your system sends to our central server, we can check all the important factors for the optimal energy yield of your PV system. This way we cannot only guarantee more efficiency and higher values of energy generation, we can extend the life of your system through regular maintenance and the exchange of defective components at an appropriate time. You receive a monthly newsletter with all relevant information on data to your system which you can download from your account.
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PV mit Batteriespeicher
Yes, it works! The combination of photovoltaics and a battery storage system for the generation of green electrical energy contributes to the maximum use of current from home production. A PV system with a solar battery increases the degree of self-sufficiency and independence from the public network. The funding by the KfW bank with a low interest loan including a redemption grant for solar batteries is very interesting. You can But caution! A battery is not a battery. The economic viability of the system depends on many factors. Learn more about VOLT-Tech battery storage systems.
VOLT - Tech Photovoltaics
Our expansive expertise is our most important tool. When we choose and dimension components we do not only refer to our many years of experience but also to testing results of the most recent trade-specific laboratories such as Photon, Fraunhofer ISE and TÜV. This strategy enables us to check critically and assign information about technical data from the manufacturer and characteristics of the devices. The fluctuations of the most important devices, such as inverters and modules, in particular, are examined. These devices behave very differently electrically during operation. This occurs especially when they are exposed to different high or low strains (such as irradiation, surrounding temperature etc) and their side effects. During the planning of the system we can anticipate all the product properties and values, which cannot be calculated with the most modern planning tools. We can target and reach the optimal working point of the separate devices and of the entire system. VOLTward enables our customers to observe and control the efficiency of their system at any hour of the day comfortably and worldwide also from the smartphone.
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